Mills in Alto Aragón

La Ferté-sous-Jouarre

La Ferté-sous-Jouarre was once known for the world's best mill stones. You'll find this in almost any text about the subject. Some writers tell us it's located in the region of Paris (France); they disagree about the exact distance, however. And only one thorough­bred ever bothered to dig into the industrious past of the city.
When we wondered what was preserved from those glorious days and tried to find answers, we couldn't find any reference. The city's website kept silent about mills (). There was a camp-site, yes, and a hotel or two. And if there was a museum it was not about stones. We browsed several guidebooks. Not a word. So we decided to study the matter on the spot and set out to visit La Ferté-sous-Jouarre with camera and plenty of film.

Pictures: 02.V.2003

(1) Our investigative team
at La Ferté's city border

 

 

(2) City map can help you
in tracing remnants
of an important industry.

When you enter the city you will probably notice the presence of a mill stone on some roundabout, but in general nothing reminds you of the past activities. Although a rapid decline set in after the Great War of 1914 two companies managed to survive into the 1950's. Not the least effort, how­ever, was put into preserving buildings or other artefacts to keep the memories alive. You really need a magnifying glass to pick the last cherries out.
Try to find the Guide de découverte du patrimoine meulier. It is a leaflet with two maps indicating things interesting from the mill stone time. Do not trust it entirely however. We dashed for hours up and down the Bois de la Barre looking for an edu­ca­tional trail that was still en projet as we learned later on. Other things are simply not there anymore and fallen of the roof (like a weather­vane) or repla­ced by a shopping center. But never­the­less, the Guide will be of great help.

(3) La Ferté-sous-Jouarre

The quarries were small and exploitation changed very often. An exploitation was started, the good stones were removed and after that the site was abandoned for a better spot. During the peak period several hunderds of quarries were scattered over the hills surrounding La Ferté.
The panorama from left to right shows some of the main sites: Bois de la Barre, La Justice, Le Limon, then the neighborhood with the railway station and finally La Marne. On the left (southern) bank we have La Marne with the mill stone port and the hill with the Tarterel quarries.

(4) La Marne from Quai des Anglais
(5) Left bank with Port aux meules

Water was a permanent sore and quarries closed down were soon flooded. Trees had ample time to grow since the shutdown of the business. The Bois de la Barre hides several nice examples.

Read Les Meuliers for an account on the history, types of mill stones, the quarries, the horrendous conditions and the health problems of the people.
We will here only focus on what's important for our study about Aragón's mills. Read also Los Molinos del Altoaragón.

(6) Flooded quarry - Bois de la Barre

Early mill stones from La Ferté were monolithes. It's only because of new developments in milling technology (the advent of cilinders), difficulties in finding stones big enough and higher requirements in meal quality that the companies were pressed to manufacture composite stones and change the ridge pattern. But the industry remained very conser­vative and they missed many chances to improve the health conditions, production methods and the profitability of their business.

In Aragón and before arrival of the train millers were limited to local stones. After that (it happened at the end of the 19th century) several forces were at work.

(7) older monolith and more recent kind

The railway made it possible to transport the better French stones from La Ferté into the region, giving millers the option to fit out their business with better equipment. Not all were up to it. The more profitable mills modernized first. Some regions were never served by the train (e.g. Sobrarbe still isn't connec­ted) and millers there were doomed to stick with the local mill stones for a much longer time.
That same railway, and better roads, made it possi­ble to carry the corn down to newly built industrial mills and the flour and bread back up to the moun­tain villages. It meant the end of many village mills. The better connected to the outside world, the ear­lier they went. Mills in remote parts of Altoaragón kept their function much longer and they aren't desintegrated yet. That's also the reason why most visits to the mills start with a healthy walk.

Only a couple of companies lived well into the 20th century. One of them was the Grande Société Meulière Dupéty Orsel et Cie, established years earlier, but working under this name only after 1911. A millstone with Dupety's logo rests in the mill of Alquézar.

Like to know a secret of the trade ? Several compa­nies ran excavations on places sometimes wide apart (f.e. in La Ferté and in Epernon, Eure-et-Loir, near Chartres), but always marked the stones La Ferté regardless of the true origin.

(8) Mark on millstone from Alquézar

(9) House built for the founder of Dupéty company
(10) Dupéty's installations

The number one attraction in La Ferté is Le port aux meules. It is the quay from where the barges were loaded with mill stones. It's built from large monolithes.

Later, when the train reached La Ferté, the quay became less important and businesses concen­trated near the new railway station at the other side of the river.

Nearby you'll find what remains of the old Dupéty buildings. Originally the arcades were open. The workers did their job in the open. There was only a break when the weather went Siberia, but then there was no pay.

The arcades of the Compagnie du Bois de la Barre are situated in that neigborhood. They are converted into car-boxes en houses.

(11) Port aux meules - the millstone quay
(12) Installations of Compagnie du Bois de la Barre

Bongini, Joël (Ed.) — 2002 — Les Meuliers - Meules et pierres meulières
Editions Presses du Village — 77139 Étrépilly (France)
ISBN: 2-914700-06-7; 278 pp.

The situation slowly improved over the years: the educational trail materialized and an important private collection was acquired.


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