Mills in Altoaragón - harinero, central eléctrica
is a village in the Alto Gállego region.
Coming from the North, head for Sabiñanigo
Huesca via the Puerto de Monrepos
Just before Hostal de Ipiés
, turn right where Orna and Caldearenas are signposted.
Follow the local road (with narrow and winding stretches) for quite some time.
You'll pass Baranguá, Latrás, Latre and eventually reach a roundabout
where one of the arms will lead you over a medieval bridge and into Caldearenas. You will soon recognize
pict. 2. The mill can be visited for a small fee and a very knowledgeable person is available
at the site —Spanish only, I'm afraid. But even by looking around without additional elucidation,
you will learn plenty of interesting stuff. Make sure you see the installation while it is switched on!
This is an entirely different class of mill than most presented
on this site. It is in fact this type of fábrica that meant the end of the small mills serving
the local community.
Two important developments made this large scale flour production possible: the arrival of the railway
and the invention of the roller mill.
t one time Budapest (Hungary) was the world's leading
flour-milling center. The modern system of milling with cylinders
originated in this country and for a long time the mills of Hungary led the world in milling
science and technique (‡
(1) «La Dolores» - Fábrica de harinas sistema Daverio - de Fermin Martinez
irst seen in Hungary in the first half of the 19th century as a device of avoiding tax on milling stones
) it took about 50 years before the use of cylinders became practical
after the introduction of chilled-iron rolls instead of rolls from porcelain.
One of the companies who
introduced many improvements to the rolling-mill was Daverio & Cie of
Already before the first World War Daverio would open branches in Marseille, Paris and Madrid.
averio was a leading company until after World War II and was
an important —maybe the most important— supplier on the Spanish market. In 1943 more than 26%
of the fábricas harineras came from Daverio (†
Daverio's main competitor
who was also Swiss but tended more towards sligthly smaller installations.
In Aragón however, Bühler with 29% of the installations was stronger represented than Daverio with only 16%.
(6) from Barcelona was only third in Spain.
(2) The rear repeats the same text with a line added:
Fábricas de electricidad y harinas
It was in 1925 that La Dolores was founded
thanks to Fermín Martínez Piedrafita. At that time there was no flour mill in the
neighbourhood and the mills of Huesca or Ayerbe were too far away to be practical. Caldearenas was also a good spot
because it was on the railway between Zaragoza and Canfranc (and France) and there was a station since 1893.
otice that apart from the name of the investor, also the supplier of
the installations is written on the walls. With reason, because Daverio was a premium brand
and of the 469 Daverio installations in Spain, 24 were installed in Aragón and only
3 in the province of Huesca
(data for 1943 in †
This was something special!
(3) Morros mill (left) with 3 Daverio roller mills
(4) Roller mill of Daverio
(5) Instalación de Fábricas de Harinas
Daverio y Cia.
Zurich (Suiza) - Madrid (Sevilla 5)
(6) Establecimientos Morros S.A., Barcelona
— EMSA —
(7) Amoròs Constructor - Zaragoza
uring several decennia the fábrica brought
life, jobs and services (e.g. distribution of mail, a telegraph station) to the village (✶
The mill ran for 250 days a year and there were usually two shifts of eight hours. Sometimes there was
a night shift also. Each year the mill was down one month for repairs and maintenance.
Although the mill was equiped with the best machinery of its time, bigger and more modern installations
gradually took over and La Dolores had to close its doors in 1968.
Its guardian Fermín Martínez Otín died in 1986.
(8) End of canal with inlet of turbine
The fábrica brought also light to Caldearenas and
the neighbouring communities. Old maps of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (editions of
1935 and 1953) show powerlines from the mill to Latre, Estallo, Aquilué, San Vicente and Serué.
Electricity was only available during the off hours of the mill: i.e. from evening twilight to dawn.
During the day all the water was needed to power the mill.
(9) Turbine at the inside of (8)
(10) Belts and wheels behind the scenes
(11) Plansichters: Morros (left) and Daverio (right)
(12) Wheat separator with cyclone
(13) Spiral separator
(14) Bagging machine
† Luis Germán Zubero — 2002 — Harinas de Aragón. Siglo y medio de
especialización triguero-harinera en Aragón (1845-2000); HISTORIA AGRARIA. 26; pp. 69-104.
‡ Shollenberger J. H. — 1937 — Wheat Requirements in Europe (Especially Pertaining to Quality
and Type and to Milling and Baking Practices. United States Department of Agriculture. Technical bulletins N°535
☨ Publius Virgilius Lawson — 1908 — The invention of the Roller Flour Mill. Proceedings
of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 55; pp. 242-258.
✶ Fábrica de harinas La Dolores —consulted IV.2017— SIPCA -
Sistema de Información del Patrimonio Aragonés: www.sipca.es